Glossary of Terms

Adulterated Specimen

A specimen to which a substance is added after it was collected. The intent is to hide any drug(s) present or chemically interfere with the testing process so that the drug(s) cannot be detected. A urine specimen containing a substance that is not a normal constituent or contains an endogenous substance at a concentration that is not normal.

Custody and Control Form (CCF)

A drug testing form that is required to be used when collecting and testing a DOT safety-sensitive worker. Other types of CCFs are also used when collecting and testing non-DOT regulated drug tests. A Federal Drug Testing custody and Control Form cannot be used for non-DOT collections.

Confirmatory Test

A test that is used to confirm the presence of a specific drug or metabolite. The second or confirmatory testing method must be gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) if is it is a DOT test. Most pain management or clinical non-regulated drug screens are confirmed using LC/MS/MS.

Dilute Specimen

This is the result of the donor drinking large amounts of a liquid before the urine collection or it could be the result of a natural or medical condition. It is a urine specimen with creatinine and specific gravity that is lower than expected in normal human urine.

DOT Test

A urine drug screen performed for Department of Transportation safety-sensitive employees. Testing must be requested on a Federal CCF only.

Initial Drug Screen

An immunoassay test (EIA) that is the first or screening tests for drugs of abuse.

Invalid Test Result

A urine specimen that contains an unidentified adulterant, an unidentified interfering substance, has an abnormal physical characteristic, or has an endogenous substance at an abnormal concentration that prevents the laboratory from completing the test.

Non-negative specimen or positive result

A urine specimen that is reported as adulterated, substituted, invalid or positive for drugs.

Normal Result

A negative laboratory test


A Point of Care test or instant testing device for medication monitoring and for drugs of abuse that provides test results in 5-10 minutes after the test is performed. The test is performed at the time of collection. POCT cups or strips generally measure drug classes. POCT results typically do not differentiate between the parent drug and the metabolite in a patient’s urine.

Positive Test Result

A drug test that has been confirmed as positive by LC/MS/MS or GC/MS by the laboratory.


The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is the governing federal agency that regulates all approved drug testing laboratories as well as all standards in drug testing.

Substituted Specimen

A specimen that is not characteristic of human urine. The substituted specimen could be water, salt water, soda, etc. A specimen with creatinine and specific gravity values that is inconsistent with human urine.

Verified laboratory test

A laboratory test result that has been verified by the MRO (DOT urine drug testing).